GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Adjuvants: A substance that enhances the body's immune response to an antigen.
Adulterant: An adulterant is a chemical which acts as a contaminant when combined with other substances.
Anionic: A class of synthetic detergents in which the molecules do not ionize in aqueous solutions.
Cellulose Substrates: The hydrolysis of cellulose is distinct from most enzymatic reactions in that the substrate is insoluble and requires the adsorption of the enzyme prior to hydrolysis.
Colorant: A colorant may be a pigment, a dye, or an ionized solution. Although a few organic colorants are stable and basically permanent, in general, they tend to be fugitive. The key concept in determining a pigment versus a colorant is its solubility. Only insoluble materials such as minerals are pigments.
Cosmetic Grade: Not subject to any regulations, safety testing or required review of ingredients. The FDA allows cosmetic grade products to contain up to 30% bacteria. This means that ingredients may only be 70% pure. The other 95% of skin care products marketed are a cosmetic grade, a significant shift down in quality from pharmaceutical grade.
Delta E: Delta-E (dE) is a single number that represents the 'distance' between two colors. The idea is that a dE of 1.0 is the smallest color difference the human eye can see.
DSL: Canada Domestic Substances List (DSL) is an inventory of approximately 23 000 substances manufactured in, imported into or used in Canada. Substances on DSL do not require new substance notification unless they are subject to a "significant new activity" regulation.
Dye Migration: Dye migration is an unwanted reaction between plastisol ink and the dye used in the garment fabric—polyester fabrics and blends, in particular. Dye-sublimation, migration, and bleeding.
Dye Tracing: Dye tracing is tracking and tracing various flows using dye added to the liquid in question. That is, it uses dye as a flow tracer. Dye tracking may be either qualitative, i.e., the presence of particular flow and its estimate, or quantitative, when the amount of the tracer dye is measured by special instruments.
EPA: The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Farnsworth-Munsell Test: The Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision test is a test of the human visual system often used to test for color blindness.
FD&C: The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics.
Flowability: The capacity to move by flow that characterizes fluids and loose particulate solids.
Food Grade: The term, “food grade,” refers to the materials used in equipment. To be defined as food grade, materials need to be non-toxic and safe for consumption. For example, if a food grade silicone o-ring is exposed to hot or acidic food products, no harmful chemicals can leach out of the silicone into that product.
Granular: Resembling or consisting of small grains or particles. Synonyms: powder, powdered, powdery, grainy, granulated, gritty
"two new inches of granular snow"
Lake: A lake pigment is a pigment manufactured by precipitating a dye with an inert binder, or "mordant", usually a metallic salt. Unlike vermilion, ultramarine, and other pigments made from ground minerals, lake pigments are organic.
NSF Certification: NSF International was formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation. It is a not for profit organization that provides public health and safety risk management solutions. Among those solutions, NSF International provides standards development and product certification.
OMRI-Compliant: The Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) is an international nonprofit organization that determines which input products are allowed for use in organic production and processing. OMRI Listed® products are allowed for use in certified organic operations under the USDA National Organic Program.
Pharmaceutical Grade: Subject to FDA (Food and Drug Administration) Regulation and must meet their requirement that products are 99.9% pure ingredients. This high-quality level of ingredients must contain 0.1%, or less, of bacteria. Only 5% of the entire skin care industry can meet such high standards to be considered Pharmaceutical Grade.
REACH: Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals is a European Union regulation.
Rhizobia: A nitrogen-fixing bacterium that is common in the soil, especially in the root nodules of leguminous plants.
Solvent: A solvent is a substance that dissolves a solute, resulting in a solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid.
The Safer Choice Program: EPA Safer Choice is a voluntary partnership program that is grounded in more than 40 years of EPA experience in evaluating the human health and environmental characteristics of chemicals. As of January 2015, more than 2,000 products qualify to carry the Safer Choice label.
Tinctorial Strength: The relative ability of a pigment or dye to impart color to a printing ink.
Water Soluble: Able to be dissolved in water.